New Strategic Dynamics in the Arctic Region: Implications for National Security and International Collaboration

Selected Readings

Following are publications and other literature on major topics that this project addresses.

Arctic Sea Lanes
& Resource Access
Competing Nat'l Interests
& Potential Conflicts
U.S. Capabilities
& Capability Gaps
Governance &
Intern'l Cooperation
  • Arctic Sea Lanes & Resource Access

    Scott Borgerson, "Arctic Meltdown: The Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming," Foreign Affairs, March/April 2008

    Coastal Response Research Center, Opening the Arctic Seas: Envisioning Disasters and Framing Solutions, January 2009
    available for download

    Ben Ellis, "Arctic Marine Transport: Today and Tomorrow," presentation at the Third Symposium on the Impacts of an Ice-Diminishing Arctic on Naval and Maritime Operations, June 10, 2009
    available for download

    Fisheries Working Group, Policy Options for Arctic Environmental Governance, March 5, 2009
    available for download

    Global Business Network, The Future of Arctic Marine Navigation in Mid-Century, Scenario Narratives Report, Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment, May 2008
    available online

    Institute of the North, Arctic Marine Transport Workshop, September 28–30, 2004
    available for download

    International Boundaries Research Unit, Durham University, “Maritime Jurisdiction and Boundaries in the Arctic Region,” February 14, 2011
    available online

    James Kraska, ed., Arctic Security in an Age of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, July 25, 2011

    Ron Macnab, "Coastal Byroads and the Transpolar Turnpike: the Future of Arctic Shipping?" Meridian, Fall/Winter 2008

    M.R. Morgan, "Implications of Climate Change on Eastern Canadian Waters," Canadian Naval Review 3, no. 4 (Winter 2008), pp. 19–22

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Arctic Report Card: Update for 2010
    available online

    General Joe Ralston, “From Sea to Shining Sea to Arctic Ocean,” Washington Times, May 16, 2011
    available online

    National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), “Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis”
    available online

  • Competing Nat'l Interests & Potential Conflicts

    United States

    Admiral Thad Allen, Commandant USCG, Statement on the Coast Guard's Arctic Presence before the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Homeland Security, August 20, 2009
    available online

    Commonwealth North, Why the Arctic Matters: America's Responsibilities as an Arctic Nation, Study Report, May 2009
    available for download

    Department of Defense, “DOD Releases Unified Command Plan 2011,” news release, April 8, 2011
    available online

    Department of Defense, OUSD (Policy), Report to Congress on Arctic Operations and the Northwest Passage, May 2011
    available for download

    Department of Homeland Security, The Coast Guard's Polar Icebreaker Maintenance, Upgrade, and Acquisition Program, Office of Inspector General, January 2011
    available for download

    Department of the Navy, U.S. Navy Arctic Roadmap, November 2009
    available for download

    Department of the Navy, Navy Climate Change Roadmap, May 21, 2010
    available for download

    CAPT Tim Gallaudet, USN, Deputy Director, Task Force Climate Change, Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy, “U.S. Navy Arctic Engagement: Challenges and Opportunities,” November 16, 2010, briefing presented at the "Intelligence Support to the Arctic" conference, November 16–17, 2010, Chantilly, VA. 
    available for download

    Ingrid Lundestad, U.S. Security Policy in the European Arctic in the Early 21st Century, Paper presented at the 51st ISA Convention in New Orleans, February 2010
    available for download

    National Intelligence Council, Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World, November 2008
    available for download

    Ronald O'Rourke, Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service, January 21, 2011
    available for download

    The Honorable Sean Parnell, "The Strategic Importance of the Arctic in U.S. Policy," Statement for the Record before the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Homeland Security Appropriations, August 20, 2009
    available for download

    RADM David Titley and Courtney St. John, “Arctic Security Considerations and the U.S. Navy’s Roadmap for the Arctic,” Naval War College Review 63, no 2, Spring 2010
    available online

    Mead Treadwell, “State of Alaska: America’s Energy Solution,” briefing given at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Washington, D.C., July 12, 2011
    available for download

    Mead Treadwell, "Is America Prepared for an Accessible Arctic," presentation to the MARAD Arctic Conference, Washington, June 5, 2008
    available for download

    White House, Office of the Press Secretary, National Security Presidential Directive 66 and Homeland Security Presidential Directive 25 (NSPD-66/HSPD-25), Arctic Region Policy, January 9, 2009
    available online

    Canada

    Michael Byers, Who Owns the Arctic? Understanding Sovereignty Disputes in the North, Douglas & McIntyre, October 2009  

    Chip Cummins, “Canada Presses Claims over a Chunk of Arctic,” Wall Street Journal, September 28, 2011
    available online

    Brian Flemming, "Canada-U.S. Relations in the Arctic: A Neighborly Proposal," Canadian Defense and Foreign Affairs Institute, December 2008
    available online

    Canada's Arctic Sovereignty, House of Commons Canada, Report of the Standing Committee on National Defense, 40th Parliament, 3rd Session, June 2010
    available online

    Government of Canada, Canada's Northern Strategy: Our North, Our Heritage, Our Future, Ottawa, 2009
    available online

    Government of Canada, Statement on Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy, Ottawa, August 2010
    available for download

    Franklyn Griffiths, Towards a Canadian Arctic Strategy, Canadian International Council, June 2009
    available online

    Franklyn Griffiths, Rob Huebert, and P. Whitney Lackenbauer, Canada and the Changing Arctic: Sovereignty, Security, and Stewardship, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, November 2011

    Rob Huebert, "Canadian Arctic Maritime Security: the Return to Canada's Third Ocean," Canadian Military Journal, Summer 2007

    Rob Huebert, “Polar Frontiers,” Armed Forces Journal, March 2010
    available online

    John Ivison, “NORAD May Add Sea, Land Defense,” National Post, February 11, 2011
    available online

    Brian MacDonald, ed., Defense Requirements for Canada's Arctic, Vimy Paper, the Conference of Defense Associations Institute, 2007
    available for download

    Norway

    Daniel Fjærtoft et al., Commerciality of Arctic Offshore Gas: A Comparative Study of the Snøhvit and Burger Fields, Econ Pöyry, Working Paper no. 2, 2011

    Josiane Kremer, “Statoil Oil Field Is ‘Twin’ of Barents Sea’s Biggest Find,” Bloomberg Businessweek, January 9, 2012,
    available online

    Sven Holtsmark, Towards Cooperation or Confrontation?: Security in the High North, NATO Defense College, Research Paper No. 45, February 2009

    Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “The Treaty on Maritime Delimitation between Norway and Russia,” September 15, 2010
    available online

    Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Norwegian Government's High North Strategy, 2006
    available for download

    Kristine Offerdal, "The European Arctic in U.S. Foreign Energy Policy: the Case of the Norwegian High North," Polar Record 45 (2009), pp. 59-71

    Reuters, “Norway Says Arctic Gas Pipeline Could Open by 2020,” January 17, 2012,
    available online

    Reuters, “Norway Hails Barents Treaty OK by Russian Duma,” March 26, 2011
    available online

    William Stoichevski, "Norway Stakes Arctic Claim Nearly to North Pole," Scandinavian Oil-Gas Magazine, April 16, 2009
    available online 

    Summary of the Recommendations of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in Regard to the Submission Made by Norway in Respect of Areas in the Arctic Ocean, the Barents Sea, and the Norwegian Sea on 27 November 2006, Adopted by the Commission on 27 March 2009
    available for download

    Denmark/Greenland

    BBC News, "Denmark Plans Forces for Arctic,"July 16, 2009

    Danish Defense Intelligence Agency, Efterretningsmæssig Risikovurderin 2009 (Intelligence-based Risk Assessment 2009), August 2009 (in Danish)
    available for download

    Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands: Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011-2020, August 2011,
    available online

    "Divorce Up North? Greenland's Future," Economist, November 29, 2008

    Government of Greenland, Greenland Mineral Exploration Brief in Figures, Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, September 2011,
    available for download

    Government of Denmark, Danish Defense Agreement 2010-2014, Copenhagen, June 24,2009

    Henrik Jedig Jørgensen and Jon Rahbek-Clemmensen, "Keep it Cool! Four Scenarios for the Danish Armed Forces in Greenland in 2030," Danish Institute for Military Studies, May 2009
    available online

    Annika Bergman Rosamond, Perspectives on Security in the Arctic Area, Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) Report, no. 9, 2011
    avaliable online

    Russia

    Agence France-Presse, "Russia to monitor U.S. Arctic submarine exercises; report," Moscow, March 5, 2009

    Pavel Baev, Russia's Race for the Arctic and the New Geopolitics of the North Pole, The Jamestown Foundation, October 2007
    available for download

    “It's a Deal,” Barents Observer, March 30, 2011
    available online

    Stephen Bierman and Ilya Khrennikov, “Exxon Gains Access to Arctic Frontier with Rosneft Deal,” Bloomberg Businessweek, September 2, 2011
    available online

    Charles Emmerson, “Russia’s Arctic Opening,” Foreign Policy, March 2011,
    available online

    Dmitry Gorenburg, “Russia’s Arctic Security Strategy,” Russian Analytical Digest, no. 96, May 12, 2011

    International Institute for Strategic Studies, “Russian Navy’s Regeneration Plans,” Strategic Comments 17, comment 8, February 2011

    Marlene Laruelle, "Russia's Arctic Ambitions: Transforming the 'Cost of Cold,'" Policy Brief No. 7, Institute for Security & Development Policy, June 2009

    Russian Security Council, "Principles of the State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic Until 2020 and Future Perspectives," Russian Arctic Strategy, September 2008 (in Russian)
    available online

    Dmitri Trenin and Pavel Baev, The Arctic: A View from Moscow, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2010
    available for download

    Katarzyna Zysk, “Russia’s Arctic Strategy: Ambitions and Constraints,” Joint Force Quarterly, issue 57 (Second Quarter 2010)
    available for download

    Katarzyna Zysk, "Russia and the High North: Security and Defense Perspectives," in Security Prospects in the High North: Geostrategic Thaw or Freeze, NATO Defense College, May 2009

    Katarzyna Bozena Zysk, "Russian Military Power and the Arctic," The EU Russia Center Review, no. 8, October 2008
    available online

    Iceland, Finland, and Sweden

    Ministry for Foreign Affairs, A Parliamentary Resolution on Iceland's Arctic Policy, May 5, 2011
    available online

    Prime Minister's Office Publications, Finland's Strategy for the Arctic Region, August 2010
    available for download

    Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sweden's Strategy for the Arctic Region, May 12, 2011,
    available for download  

  • U.S. Capabilities & Capability Gaps

    Army News, "As Ice Melts, NORTHCOM Eyes Arctic Patrols," May 12, 2008
    available online

    Lance M. Bacon, “Ice Breaker,” Armed Forces Journal, March 2010
    available online

    Sharon Burke, et al., Uncharted Waters: The U.S. Navy and Navigating Climate Change, Center for a New American Security (CNAS) Working Paper, December 2008
    available for download

    David Gove, Rear Admiral, USN, "Arctic Melt: Reopening a Naval Frontier," Proceedings Magazine135, no. 2, February 2009

    Lawrence Korb, Sean Duggan, and Laura Conley, Building a U.S. Coast Guard for the 21st Century, Center for American Progress, June 2010
    available for download

    David Larter, “U.S. Coast Guard Funds Fifth NSC; Emphasizes Arctic,” Defense News, February 21, 2011
    available online

    Ronald O'Rourke, "Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress," Congressional Research Service, December 2009
    available for download

    National Research Council, National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces, National Academies Press, March 2011
    available online

    National Research Council, Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: an Assessment of U.S. Needs, Committee on the Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs, National Academy of Sciences, 2007

    Office of Naval Research, Final Report on Naval Operations in an Ice-free Arctic Symposium, April 17–18, 2001
    available for download
     

    Charles Perry, Eric McVadon, and Bobby Andersen, "Sending UCAS to Sea: A Superior Carrier Through the Unmanned Combat Air System", an unpublished IFPA working paper, April 2009
    available soon  

    Andrew Revkin, "Experts urge U.S. to increase Icebreaker fleet in Arctic waters", New York Times, August 17, 2008
    available online  

    Jon Rosamond, "USCG plans to determine suitability of assets for cold-weather operations", Jane's Defense Weekly, March 20, 2008

    CDR W.E. Schlauder, USN, Adapting to a Changing World: The United States, Climate Change, and the Arctic Maritime Commons, Naval War College, November 2007

    Mead Treadwell, "U.S. strategic interests in the age of an accessible Arctic… what we need to know and do now," Testimony before the Senate Committee on Appropriations, Homeland Security Subcommittee, August 20, 2009
    available for download

    U.S. Arctic Research Commission and National Ice Center, Summary Report, Impact of an Ice-Diminishing Arctic on Naval and Maritime Operations Symposium, July 10–12, 2007
    available for download

    United States Coast Guard, The U.S. Coastguard Strategy for Maritime Safety, Security, and Stewardship, Washington, D.C., January 2007
    available for download

    United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), Coast Guard: Efforts to Identify Arctic Requirements Are Ongoing, but More Communications about Agency Planning Efforts Would Be Beneficial, Report to Congressional Requesters, September 2011
    available for download

  • Governance Issues & Intern'l Cooperation

    Alyson J.K. Bailes, “NATO and the EU in the North: What Is at Stake in Current Strategy Development?” Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review, no. 23, 2010
    available for download

    Paul Arthur Berkman, “Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean: Promoting Co-operation and Preventing Conflict,” RUSI Whitehall Papers, September 2010

    Scott Borgerson, The National Interest and the Law of the Sea, Council Special Report no. 46, May 2009

    Lawson Brigham, “Think Again: The Arctic,” Foreign Policy, September/October 2010
    available online

    Joshua Busby, Climate Change and National Security: An Agenda for Action, Council on Foreign Relations, CSR no. 32, November 2007
    available online

    Hans Corell, "Reflections on the Possibilities and Limitations of a Binding Legal Regime for the Arctic," Arctic Frontiers, Tromsø, January 22, 2007
    available online

    Charles Ebinger and E. Zambetakis, "The Geopolitics of Arctic Melt," International Affairs 85, no. 6 (2009), pp. 1215-1232
    available for download

    European Security and Defense Assembly, Assembly of the Western European Union, Europe's Northern Security Dimension, Document A/2016, December 4, 2008
    available online 

    Alf Håkon Hoel, "The High North Legal-Political Regime," in Security Prospects in the High North: Geostrategic Thaw or Freeze, NATO Defense College, May 2009

    Government Offices of Sweden, Sweden's Chairmanship Programme for the Arctic Council 2011–2013,
    available online

    Rob Huebert and Brooks Yeager, "A New Sea.  The Need for a Regional Agreement on Management and Conservation of the Arctic Marine Environment" (Oslo: WWF International Arctic Programme), January 2008
    available for download

    "The Ilulissat Declaration. Arctic Ocean Conference," Ilulissat, Greenland, 27–29 May 2008
    available for download

    Timo Koivurova et al., “The Present and Future Competence of the European Union in the Arctic,” Polar Record, July 8, 2011
    available online

    Timo Koivurova and Erik Molenaar, "International Governance and Regulation of the Marine Arctic," A report prepared for the WWF International Arctic Programme (Oslo: WWF Arctic Programme), 20 January 2009
    available for download

    NATO, “Partnerships: A Cooperative Approach to Security,” May 16, 2011,
    available online

    NATO Parliamentary Assembly Committee, Security at the Top of the World: Is There a NATO Role in the High North? Report, 2010 Annual Session
    available online

    Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, NATO Secretary General, "Security Prospects in the High North, Reykjavik, Iceland," speech, January 29, 2009,
    available online 

    Thorvald Stoltenberg, Nordic Cooperation on Foreign and Security Policy, proposal presented to the extraordinary meeting of Nordic foreign ministers, Oslo, Norway, February 2009
    available for download

    "Tromsø Declaration on the Occasion of the Sixth Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council," Tromsø, Norway, April 29, 2009
    available for download

    Oran Young, "Whither the Arctic?  Conflict or Cooperation in the Circumpolar North," Polar Record 45 (2009), 73–82

    U.S. Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, “Secretary Clinton Signs the Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement with Other Arctic Nations,” fact sheet, May 12, 2011,
    available online